dor_id: 4121651

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590.#.#.a: Coordinación de Difusión Cultural, UNAM

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883.#.#.q: Dirección General de Publicaciones y Fomento Editorial, UNAM

850.#.#.a: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

856.4.0.u: http://www.investigacionesgeograficas.unam.mx/index.php/rig/article/view/60212/54174

100.1.#.a: Casado Izquierdo, José María

524.#.#.a: Casado Izquierdo, José María (2021). From a health crisis to economic and labor crises: spatial patterns of the impact of COVID-19 on formal employment in Mexico. Investigaciones Geográficas; Núm. 104;, 2021. Recuperado de https://repositorio.unam.mx/contenidos/4121651

245.1.0.a: From a health crisis to economic and labor crises: spatial patterns of the impact of COVID-19 on formal employment in Mexico

502.#.#.c: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

561.1.#.a: Instituto de Geografía, UNAM

264.#.0.c: 2021

264.#.1.c: 2021-01-27

506.1.#.a: La titularidad de los derechos patrimoniales de esta obra pertenece a las instituciones editoras. Su uso se rige por una licencia Creative Commons BY-NC 4.0 Internacional, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode.es, fecha de asignación de la licencia 2021-01-27, para un uso diferente consultar al responsable jurídico del repositorio por medio del correo electrónico dianachg@igg.unam.mx

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520.3.#.a: This report describes the COVID-19 epidemic in Mexico and the measures taken by the federal government, also addressing its economic and labor consequences. This work is based on a review of the effects of influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico in 2009 and a brief review of other investigations on the impact of COVID-19 on the labor market (specially in Latin America). After two months of closure of non-essential activities, the economic re-opening in June took place slowly given the persistence of the epidemic. This explains the record fall in GDP in 2Q 2010, a situation that was repeated in many countries, but that in Mexico was aggravated for being its fifth consecutive quarter of decline. The decline in exports, fueled by the closure of the automotive industry, and the near-total collapse of air traffic and tourism, exemplify and explain the depth of the economic recession. The health and economic crisis spread with unusual severity and speed to the labor market; within a month (April), 12.5 million workers, almost 25% of the total, lost their jobs. This collapse initially impacted the most vulnerable workers, i.e., those with low wages or who do not receive a regular income (self-employed or unpaid family members), informal workers, small-business workers, youngsters and elderly adults, women, etc. Driven by need, some of these groups promptly reentered the labor market. The loss of jobs is compounded by increased underemployment and reduced labor income, all of which point to a sharp rise in poverty. This research addresses particularly the impact of COVID-19 on formal employment using data from the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS), which bring the advantage of offering municipal disaggregation. This approach facilitates investigating the existence of spatial patterns and their link to the loss of jobs in certain economic activities using cartography as a tool. The dramatic loss of jobs in the traditional beach and sun resorts has hit particularly hard Cancun, Riviera Maya and Riviera Nayarit, bringing a crisis in the lodging and food+beverage areas that also impacts large cities such as Mexico City. The near-total closure of manufacturing, particularly in the automotive industry, has severely affected the Bajío corridor; by contrast, the northern border underwent a major industrial diversification facing the crisis, with Tijuana even gaining jobs. Construction has been also seriously affected, impacting both the scarce formal employment in small rural municipalities and jobs in large metropolitan areas and cities, especially the Monterrey metropolitan area and oil-extraction regions such as Ciudad del Carmen and Tampico-Altamira-Ciudad Madero. Finally, the decline in formal jobs in farming regions of Sinaloa, Sonora, and Veracruz, mainly in commercial agriculture areas, is not caused by the epidemic but by the seasonal nature of this activity, especially at the end of the sugarcane harvesting season. Indeed, the policies adopted in Mexico in the face of the crisis are different: as opposed to temporary job-protection policies through subsidies in many countries, Mexico has opted to maintain its social programs and extend targeted credits to small businesses, which are frequently informal. However, its long-term impact remains to be seen, especially in view of a declining and deteriorating labor market, with depressed wages, high underemployment, and recovery driven by informal employment. Tras un breve repaso de las consecuencias para México de la pandemia desatada por la influenza A (H1N1) en 2009 y estudios similares al presente sobre el impacto de la COVID-19 en el mercado de trabajo, se aborda el desarrollo inicial de la epidemia en México y las medidas adoptadas por el gobierno federal ante esta situación. Se analiza a continuación su impacto en la economía en general y en el mercado de trabajo en particular, aunque la atención se centra en sus repercusiones sobre el empleo formal a partir de datos del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), datos que permiten investigar la existencia de patrones espaciales y su vinculación con ciertas actividades económicas. A la dramática destrucción del empleo en los tradicionales centros turísticos de sol y playa de Cancún, la Riviera Maya y Riviera Nayarit, se une la crisis de las actividades de alojamiento y servicio de alimentos y bebidas en algunas grandes urbes como la Ciudad de México. El cierre casi total de las manufacturas, particularmente de la industria automotriz, afecta gravemente al corredor del Bajío, mientras la mayor diversificación industrial de la frontera norte surge como una barrera frente a la crisis. Otro sector duramente castigado es la construcción, lo que repercute tanto en el escaso empleo formal de pequeños municipios rurales como en el empleo de grandes zonas metropolitanas y ciudades, especialmente la zona metropolitana de Monterrey; y también de espacios petroleros como Ciudad del Carmen y Tampico-Altamira-Ciudad Madero. Finalmente, la disminución del empleo formal en ciertas regiones agropecuarias, principalmente áreas de agricultura comercial, no es atribuible a la epidemia sino a la propia naturaleza estacional de esta actividad.

773.1.#.t: Investigaciones Geográficas; Núm. 104; (2021)

773.1.#.o: http://www.investigacionesgeograficas.unam.mx/index.php/rig/index

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022.#.#.a: ISSN electrónico: 2448-7279; ISSN impreso: 0188-4611

310.#.#.a: Cuatrimestral

264.#.1.b: Instituto de Geografía, UNAM

758.#.#.1: http://www.investigacionesgeograficas.unam.mx/index.php/rig/index

doi: https://doi.org/10.14350/rig.60212

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245.1.0.b: De crisis sanitaria a crisis económica y laboral: patrones espaciales del impacto de la covid-19 en el empleo formal de México

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Artículo

From a health crisis to economic and labor crises: spatial patterns of the impact of COVID-19 on formal employment in Mexico

Casado Izquierdo, José María

Instituto de Geografía, UNAM, publicado en Investigaciones Geográficas, y cosechado de Revistas UNAM

Licencia de uso

Procedencia del contenido

Entidad o dependencia
Instituto de Geografía, UNAM
Revista
Repositorio
Contacto
Revistas UNAM. Dirección General de Publicaciones y Fomento Editorial, UNAM en revistas@unam.mx

Cita

Casado Izquierdo, José María (2021). From a health crisis to economic and labor crises: spatial patterns of the impact of COVID-19 on formal employment in Mexico. Investigaciones Geográficas; Núm. 104;, 2021. Recuperado de https://repositorio.unam.mx/contenidos/4121651

Descripción del recurso

Autor(es)
Casado Izquierdo, José María
Tipo
Artículo de Investigación
Área del conocimiento
Ciencias Sociales y Económicas
Título
From a health crisis to economic and labor crises: spatial patterns of the impact of COVID-19 on formal employment in Mexico
Fecha
2021-01-27
Resumen
This report describes the COVID-19 epidemic in Mexico and the measures taken by the federal government, also addressing its economic and labor consequences. This work is based on a review of the effects of influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico in 2009 and a brief review of other investigations on the impact of COVID-19 on the labor market (specially in Latin America). After two months of closure of non-essential activities, the economic re-opening in June took place slowly given the persistence of the epidemic. This explains the record fall in GDP in 2Q 2010, a situation that was repeated in many countries, but that in Mexico was aggravated for being its fifth consecutive quarter of decline. The decline in exports, fueled by the closure of the automotive industry, and the near-total collapse of air traffic and tourism, exemplify and explain the depth of the economic recession. The health and economic crisis spread with unusual severity and speed to the labor market; within a month (April), 12.5 million workers, almost 25% of the total, lost their jobs. This collapse initially impacted the most vulnerable workers, i.e., those with low wages or who do not receive a regular income (self-employed or unpaid family members), informal workers, small-business workers, youngsters and elderly adults, women, etc. Driven by need, some of these groups promptly reentered the labor market. The loss of jobs is compounded by increased underemployment and reduced labor income, all of which point to a sharp rise in poverty. This research addresses particularly the impact of COVID-19 on formal employment using data from the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS), which bring the advantage of offering municipal disaggregation. This approach facilitates investigating the existence of spatial patterns and their link to the loss of jobs in certain economic activities using cartography as a tool. The dramatic loss of jobs in the traditional beach and sun resorts has hit particularly hard Cancun, Riviera Maya and Riviera Nayarit, bringing a crisis in the lodging and food+beverage areas that also impacts large cities such as Mexico City. The near-total closure of manufacturing, particularly in the automotive industry, has severely affected the Bajío corridor; by contrast, the northern border underwent a major industrial diversification facing the crisis, with Tijuana even gaining jobs. Construction has been also seriously affected, impacting both the scarce formal employment in small rural municipalities and jobs in large metropolitan areas and cities, especially the Monterrey metropolitan area and oil-extraction regions such as Ciudad del Carmen and Tampico-Altamira-Ciudad Madero. Finally, the decline in formal jobs in farming regions of Sinaloa, Sonora, and Veracruz, mainly in commercial agriculture areas, is not caused by the epidemic but by the seasonal nature of this activity, especially at the end of the sugarcane harvesting season. Indeed, the policies adopted in Mexico in the face of the crisis are different: as opposed to temporary job-protection policies through subsidies in many countries, Mexico has opted to maintain its social programs and extend targeted credits to small businesses, which are frequently informal. However, its long-term impact remains to be seen, especially in view of a declining and deteriorating labor market, with depressed wages, high underemployment, and recovery driven by informal employment. Tras un breve repaso de las consecuencias para México de la pandemia desatada por la influenza A (H1N1) en 2009 y estudios similares al presente sobre el impacto de la COVID-19 en el mercado de trabajo, se aborda el desarrollo inicial de la epidemia en México y las medidas adoptadas por el gobierno federal ante esta situación. Se analiza a continuación su impacto en la economía en general y en el mercado de trabajo en particular, aunque la atención se centra en sus repercusiones sobre el empleo formal a partir de datos del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), datos que permiten investigar la existencia de patrones espaciales y su vinculación con ciertas actividades económicas. A la dramática destrucción del empleo en los tradicionales centros turísticos de sol y playa de Cancún, la Riviera Maya y Riviera Nayarit, se une la crisis de las actividades de alojamiento y servicio de alimentos y bebidas en algunas grandes urbes como la Ciudad de México. El cierre casi total de las manufacturas, particularmente de la industria automotriz, afecta gravemente al corredor del Bajío, mientras la mayor diversificación industrial de la frontera norte surge como una barrera frente a la crisis. Otro sector duramente castigado es la construcción, lo que repercute tanto en el escaso empleo formal de pequeños municipios rurales como en el empleo de grandes zonas metropolitanas y ciudades, especialmente la zona metropolitana de Monterrey; y también de espacios petroleros como Ciudad del Carmen y Tampico-Altamira-Ciudad Madero. Finalmente, la disminución del empleo formal en ciertas regiones agropecuarias, principalmente áreas de agricultura comercial, no es atribuible a la epidemia sino a la propia naturaleza estacional de esta actividad.
Idioma
spa
ISSN
ISSN electrónico: 2448-7279; ISSN impreso: 0188-4611

Enlaces